SIPOC Diagram

What is SIPOC?

SIPOC stands for Suppliers, Inputs, Processes, Outputs, and Customers. It is a powerful tool for process improvement and mapping. SIPOC helps businesses to visualize and understand the various components involved in a process. Fruther, SIPOC breaks down complex processes into smaller, manageable parts. SIPOC, in addition, enables the Six Sigma project team to identify bottlenecks, inefficiencies, and areas for improvement.


Decoding SIPOC: Understanding Each Component

Suppliers - Who's Involved?

In the SIPOC framework, suppliers are basically the entities that provide the necessary inputs to a process. They can either be internal or external to your organization. For instance, if you’re running a restaurant, your suppliers include farmers, food distributors, or even the cleaning service you hire. Identifying and understanding your suppliers is therefore essential for ensuring a smooth flow of inputs into your process.

Inputs - What Goes In?

Inputs, such as materials, information, or resources, are components required to execute a process. These are either tangible or intangible elements. For our restaurant example, inputs include ingredients, cooking utensils, recipes, employee skills, and even customer preferences. By clearly defining and categorizing your inputs, you’ll be better equipped to manage and optimize your processes.

Processes - How is it Done?

Processes are the series of activities that transform inputs into desired outputs. In our restaurant context, processes include activities such as food preparation, cooking, plating, and serving. Mapping out your processes in a SIPOC diagram helps visualize the flow and sequence of tasks. This also enables you to identify potential bottlenecks, redundancies, or areas for improvement.

Outputs - What Comes Out?

Outputs are the end results or deliverables of a process. For a restaurant, outputs include meals prepared, customer satisfaction, revenue generated, and so on. It is, therefore, crucial to clearly define your outputs to ensure that they align with your business goals and customer expectations. Also, monitoring and measuring outputs enable you to assess the effectiveness of your processes and make informed decisions.

Customers - Who Receives the Output?

Finally, customers are the individuals or entities who receive and benefit from the outputs of your process. In our restaurant example, customers are the diners who enjoy the meals, provide feedback, and generate revenue for your business. In order to deliver value and maintain a competitive edge, you should understand customers’ needs, expectations, and preferences.

How to create a SIPOC diagram?

To create a SIPOC diagram:

  1. Start with the Process: Write down the name of the process you want to map at the center of the page.

  2. Identify the Outputs: These are the final results or products of the process. List them on the right side of the process name.

  3. Identify the Customers: Customers are the recipients or users of the process outputs. List them next to the outputs.

  4. Identify the Inputs: Inputs are the resources or materials required to carry out the process. List them on the left side of the process name.

  5. Identify the Suppliers: Suppliers provide the inputs to the process. List them next to the inputs.

  6. Connect the components: Draw arrows to connect the suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, and customers, indicating the flow of materials or information.

SIPOC Example:

Tips for using SIPOC effectively:

  1. Keep it simple and concise: Focus on the key elements and avoid getting into too much detail.

  2. Involve the right people: Collaborate with stakeholders who have knowledge of the process.

  3. Review and Validate: Ensure that the SIPOC accurately reflects the process by verifying it with process participants.

  4. Use it as a communication tool: Share it with team members and stakeholders to align everyone’s understanding.

  5. Update the SIPOC as needed: Processes may change over time, so ensure the SIPOC remains up-to-date.

How to use SIPOC in the Define phase:

  1. Defining the Process Scope:

    First, start by identifying the process that you focus on. Be clear about what the process is and what it aims to achieve. The SIPOC helps you visually represent the process and ensures everyone is on the same page regarding the boundaries of the project.

  2. Identifying Stakeholders:

    In the SIPOC diagram, the “Customers” and “Suppliers” sections help you to identify the primary stakeholders involved in the process. Customers are the recipients of the process outputs, while suppliers provide the inputs to the process. Therefore, understanding these stakeholders is vital as their requirements will drive the project’s success criteria.

  3. Mapping Inputs and Outputs:

    The “Inputs” and “Outputs” sections of the SIPOC allow you to list all the critical factors that affect the process (inputs) and the key deliverables of the process (outputs). So, this step helps you understand the factors that contribute to the process and the outcomes it produces.

  4. Creating a High-Level Process Flow:

    The “Process” section of the SIPOC diagram captures the key steps of the process. It helps create a high-level process flowchart that highlights the major activities involved in the process. Therefore, use this flowchart to discuss the process with stakeholders and to identify potential areas of improvement.

  5. Identifying Potential Project Y(s):

    In Six Sigma, “Y” refers to the project’s primary outcome or the performance metric to be improved. The SIPOC can help you identify potential project Y(s) by focusing on the critical outputs and their impact on customers. Also, selecting the right Y(s) is crucial for project success.

  6. Identifying Potential Project X(s):

    “X” represents the process inputs or factors that may impact the project’s outcome (Y). By analyzing the SIPOC, you can identify potential project X(s) that may be the root causes of performance issues.

  7. Setting Initial Project Goals:

    Based on the SIPOC analysis, you can establish initial project goals and objectives. Further, these goals should align with the improvement needs identified in the SIPOC.


In summary, SIPOC (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, and Customers) is a powerful process mapping tool, It essentially provides a high-level overview of a process and its key components. As Six Sigma professionals, understanding SIPOC is essential for process improvement efforts. This tool also helps identify stakeholders, visualize process flow, and highlight potential issues. By creating a SIPOC diagram, you can gain valuable insights into the process. Remember to keep it simple, involve the right people, validate the information, and use it as a communication tool. Finally, SIPOC serves as a solid foundation for process analysis and improvement, making it an indispensable tool in your continuous improvement journey.

Scroll to Top