Overview of the Measure phase


The Measure phase is the second phase of the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) Six Sigma methodology. In the Measure phase, our goal is to gather data and metrics to understand the current state of the process and then identify the root cause of the problem.

The specific activities that take place in the Measure phase include:

  • Defining the metrics: You will identify the key metrics that you use to measure the process. However, keep in mind that these metrics should be relevant to the customer and you should be able to track the progress of the project.
  • Gathering data: You will then collects data on the current state of the process. With this data, you will be able to identify the areas to improve the process.
  • Validating the measurement system: You also ensure that the data collection process is accurate and reliable. This particularly involves checking the accuracy of the measurement tools and the consistency of the data collection methods.
  • Determining the process capability: You determine the process’ ability to meet the customer’s requirements. For this purpose, you will calculate the process sigma level.

The Measure phase provides you with a baseline to measure improvement. You will use the data collected in this phase to identify the root cause of the problem and then develop solutions that will improve the process.

measure phase

Importance of the Measure Phase

The Measure phase serves as a foundation for objective decision-making and quantifying the performance of a process. In this phase, you will identify key metrics, gather data, and assess process capability. For instance, if you are a retail company and your aim is to improve your delivery process, you may measure metrics such as delivery time, order accuracy, and customer satisfaction. These measurements provide you with a baseline for future improvement efforts and help establish realistic goals for performance enhancement.

Collecting Relevant Data

To ensure accuracy and reliability, the Measure phase requires collecting relevant data that aligns with the process objectives. For this, you may use various data collection methods such as surveys, observations, or analyzing existing data. For example, in a healthcare facility, you may collect data on patient wait times, appointment cancellations, and treatment outcomes to evaluate the efficiency of their operations. By gathering reliable data, you can make informed decisions and identify areas for improvement.

Assessing Process Capability

During this phase, you will assess process capability to determine whether the process meets your customer’s requirements. Additionally, you can also utilize statistical tools such as process capability indices (such as Cp and Cpk) to analyze data and assess process performance. For instance, in a manufacturing company, you may assess the capability of your production line to meet dimensional specifications for a product. As a result, this assessment helps you identify process variations and sets the stage for improvement efforts.

Establishing a Baseline for Improvement

By measuring the current performance of a process, the Measure phase establishes a baseline for improvement initiatives. In addition, it provides a clear understanding of the process’s strengths and weaknesses, enabling you to prioritize improvement areas. For example, in a customer service team, you may identify through data measurement that response times to customer inquiries are consistently below expectations. Consequently, this baseline measurement becomes the starting point for implementing your strategies to reduce response times and enhance customer satisfaction.


In summary, the Measure phase in Six Sigma is a crucial step in the journey toward process improvement. By collecting relevant data, assessing process capability, and establishing a performance baseline, organizations can effectively identify improvement opportunities and lay the groundwork for data-driven decision-making in subsequent phases of the Six Sigma methodology.

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