How to Generate Solutions in the Improve Phase of DMAIC

Before we learn how to generate solutions, let us recap the previous phase. In the Analyze phase, we delved deep into the data. Specifically, we analyzed and interpreted the findings to uncover the root causes behind the identified problems. In fact, these insights are crucial as they form the basis for generating effective solutions in the Improve phase. By understanding the analyzed data, we can pinpoint specific problem areas and recognize improvement opportunities. As a result, this would help us to drive impactful changes in our processes or systems. With a clear understanding of the root causes and problem insights, we can now proceed confidently to generate and implement solutions that will lead to lasting improvements.

Tools and Techniques to Generate Solutions

1. Generate Solutions by Brainstorming

how to generate solutions

Brainstorming is a collaborative and creative problem-solving technique. Brainstorming is useful to generate a large number of ideas or solutions to a specific question or challenge. Further, it is a structured process that encourages open and free-thinking among participants to spark innovative thinking and explore various possibilities.

Brainstorming Best Practices To Generate Solutions:

1. Define the Objective:

First, clearly state the problem or question for which you need ideas. Be specific and concise to focus the brainstorming session.

2. Gather a Diverse Group:

Next, assemble a diverse group of individuals who bring different perspectives, knowledge, and expertise to the table. This diversity enhances the range of ideas generated.

3. Set Ground Rules:

Establish an open and non-judgmental atmosphere. Also, encourage participants to share any ideas that come to mind without criticism or evaluation at this stage.

4. Facilitate Idea Generation:

The facilitator can use various techniques such as mind mapping, round-robin, or silent brainstorming to stimulate idea generation. After that, participants share their thoughts one by one, building upon each other’s ideas.

5. Encourage Quantity over Quality:

In the initial stage, focus on generating as many ideas as possible, even if they seem wild or unconventional. Remember, quantity breeds creativity and increases the likelihood of finding valuable solutions.

6. No Criticism Allowed:

During the brainstorming session, avoid criticism or evaluation. In fact, without judgment, all ideas are accepted and recorded.

7. Build on Ideas:

Next, encourage participants to build on or combine existing ideas to create new ones. This can lead to more refined and innovative solutions.

8. Record and Document:

Capture all the ideas on a board, flip chart, or digital tool visible to all participants. As a result, this transparency promotes a collaborative atmosphere.

9. Review and Prioritize:

Once the idea generation phase is complete, review and discuss the ideas. Prioritize the most promising ones based on their feasibility, impact, and alignment with the objective.

10. Action Planning:

After the brainstorming session, develop the most viable ideas into actionable plans with clear steps for implementation.

In summary, brainstorming is a valuable technique for problem-solving, idea generation, and innovation across various fields, including business, product development, education, and creative endeavors. Additionally, it helps teams tap into their collective knowledge and creativity, leading to novel and effective solutions to complex challenges.

2. Generate Solutions with an Affinity Diagram

how to generate solutions
Affinity Diagram

An affinity diagram is a visual tool to organize and categorize a large number of ideas. Affinity diagrams are useful in problem-solving, brainstorming sessions, and process improvement efforts to make sense of diverse inputs and identify patterns or themes.

Here is how you use Affinity Diagram to Generate Solutions:

1. Prepare Materials:

First, gather a group of participants, sticky notes, markers, and a large board or wall space where you can stick the notes.

2. Define the Topic or Problem:

Next, clearly state the topic or problem for which you are seeking ideas or input. For example, “Improving Customer Service” or “Reducing Product Development Time.”

3. Generate Ideas:

Now, on individual sticky notes, write down your ideas, observations, data points, or thoughts related to the topic. Remember, each idea should be concise and written on a separate note.

4. Sticky Notes on the Board:

Once everyone has written down their ideas, stick the notes randomly on the board. There is no need to group them at this stage.

5. Identify Themes:

As a group, start looking at the sticky notes and identify any natural themes or categories that emerge. Themes are common threads or related ideas grouped together.

6. Arrange Notes into Groups:

Next, move the sticky notes with similar themes closer together on the board. Additionally, create groups by arranging related notes in clusters.

7. Label the Groups:

Once you have organized all the notes into clusters, label each group with a heading that represents the theme or category. This will give structure to the affinity diagram.

8. Review and Refine:

As a group, review the diagram to ensure that the grouping makes sense and accurately represents the ideas. Further, you can make adjustments by moving notes between groups or creating new groups if necessary.

9. Analyze and Draw Insights:

With the affinity diagram completed, analyze the information to draw insights and patterns. Consequently, this can help identify common trends, areas of focus, or potential solutions related to the topic or problem.

10. Use the Insights:

Use the insights gained from the affinity diagram to inform decision-making, guide further discussions, and develop action plans to address the identified themes or areas of improvement.

In summary, the affinity diagram is an effective way to generate solutions, manage, and make sense of large amounts of information in a collaborative and visually intuitive manner. Furthermore, it fosters team engagement, encourages participation, and helps in identifying valuable insights. In addition, this can lead to more informed and targeted problem-solving efforts.

3. Generate Solutions with Cause and Effect Analysis (Fishbone Diagram)

how to generate solutions
Fishbone Diagram

A cause-and-effect diagram, also known as a Fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram, is a visual tool to explore the potential causes of a specific problem or effect. Further, it helps identify various factors that may contribute to the issue, making it useful for generating potential solutions.

A cause-and-effect diagram, also known as a Fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram, is a visual tool used to explore the potential causes of a specific problem or effect. Further, it helps identify various factors that may contribute to the issue, making it useful for generating potential solutions.

Here’s how to use a cause-and-effect diagram to generate solutions:

1. Define the Problem:

First, clearly articulate the problem or effect you want to address. Write it at the “head” of the fishbone diagram, which represents the effect you want to investigate.

2. Identify Major Categories (Causes):

Next, draw a horizontal line extending from the head of the fishbone, resembling the spine of a fish. This line represents the major categories of potential causes related to the problem. More commonly, we include “Manpower,” “Machines,” “Methods,” “Materials,” “Measurement,” and “Environment” (the 6Ms) in the categories.

3. Brainstorm Potential Causes:

Now, engage a team of stakeholders, subject matter experts, or individuals familiar with the problem. Then, you start brainstorming potential causes under each major category. Use the “bones” of the fishbone to represent these causes.

4. Dig Deeper into Sub-Causes:

For each potential cause identified in Step 3, continue to explore sub-causes or contributing factors. Then, you add these sub-causes as smaller branches to the corresponding bones of the fishbone diagram.

5. Analyze and Prioritize Causes:

Once you have exhaustively brainstormed potential causes and their sub-clauses, review and analyze them. Importantly, prioritize the most probable and impactful causes for further investigation and solution generation.

6. Develop Solutions for Each Cause:

For the prioritized causes, brainstorm possible solutions or actions that can address each cause. For this, involve the team in the process to encourage diverse perspectives and creativity.

7. Evaluate Feasibility and Impact:

Next, assess the feasibility and potential impact of each solution. Consider factors like resources required, timeframes, and potential risks.

8. Select and Develop Action Plans:

Choose the most promising solutions for each cause, considering their feasibility and impact. Develop action plans detailing how each solution will be implemented, who will be responsible, and what resources are needed.

9. Implement Solutions:

Put the action plans into action and monitor the progress of the solution implementation.

10. Evaluate Effectiveness:

After implementing the solutions, assess their effectiveness in addressing the identified causes and resolving the problem. Use data and feedback to measure the impact and make further adjustments if necessary.

A cause-and-effect diagram is a powerful tool for understanding the root causes of a problem and generating potential solutions. By involving a cross-functional team in the brainstorming process, you can leverage diverse expertise and perspectives to identify comprehensive and effective solutions for the identified issues.

Example: Let’s say a hospital is experiencing long patient waiting times. Here, the fishbone diagram identifies factors such as insufficient staffing, outdated scheduling processes, lack of communication, and inadequate equipment. Based on these causes, potential solutions could involve hiring additional staff, implementing advanced scheduling software, improving interdepartmental communication, and upgrading medical equipment.

4. Pugh Matrix

The Pugh Matrix, also known as the Decision Matrix or Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) matrix, is a structured tool used to compare and evaluate multiple alternatives against a set of criteria. Additionally, it helps teams objectively select the most favorable solution or design among various options. Particularly, the Pugh Matrix is useful when dealing with complex decisions that involve multiple factors or criteria.

Here’s how to use a Pugh Matrix for generating solutions:

1. Define the Problem and Criteria:

First, clearly define the problem you are trying to solve and establish the criteria that will be used to evaluate potential solutions. Remember, these criteria should be measurable, relevant, and directly related to the problem.

2. Identify Alternatives:

Next, brainstorm and list all the possible solutions or options to address the problem. These can be different approaches, designs, or strategies.

3. Select a Baseline Alternative:

Once you have the list of possible solutions or options, choose one of the alternatives as the baseline or reference. By baselining, it will serve as a point of comparison for other alternatives.

4. Create the Matrix:

Next, set up a table with the alternatives listed in rows and the evaluation criteria in columns. Include the baseline alternative as the first row.

5. Evaluate Alternatives Against Criteria:

Compare each alternative to the baseline against each criterion. In addition, use a scoring system, such as +1 for better, 0 for the same, and -1 for worse than the baseline. Alternatively, you can use numerical scores or a scale to rate the performance of each alternative on each criterion.

6. Calculate Total Scores:

Once you have completed the scoring process, sum up the scores for each alternative across all criteria to obtain a total score for each option.

7. Analyze the Results:

Now, identify the alternative(s) with the highest total scores. These are the most favorable solutions based on the evaluation criteria.

8. Validate and Refine:

Once you have identified the favorable solutions, review the results with the team. Additionally, you should also ensure that the evaluation and scoring were fair and accurate. If required, make any necessary adjustments or refinements based on team feedback.

9. Select the Best Solution:

Based on the analysis, choose the alternative with the highest total score as the recommended solution. This option is likely to provide the best overall performance considering all the evaluation criteria.

10. Implement and Monitor:

Finally, put the chosen solution into action and monitor its performance over time. Assess its effectiveness in solving the problem and achieving the desired outcomes.

Pugh Matrix Example
how to generate solutions

The Pugh Matrix is an effective tool for making data-driven decisions, especially when there are multiple alternatives to consider and various criteria to evaluate. It brings objectivity to the decision-making process and ensures that all relevant factors are taken into account when generating and selecting solutions.

5. Pilot Testing

Pilot testing, also known as a pilot study or pilot implementation, involves testing a solution on a limited scale before full implementation. Therefore, it is a crucial step in implementing a new solution to validate its effectiveness, identify potential issues, and make necessary adjustments. Besides, the pilot test helps minimize risks and costs associated with large-scale implementation. During the pilot, gather the data and feedback and evaluate the solution’s performance. Based on the results, make adjustments before proceeding with full-scale implementation.

The pilot testing phase typically involves the following steps:

1. Selecting a Representative Sample:

To begin with, choose a representative sample of the target population or the area to apply the solution. Remember, this sample should be large enough to provide meaningful feedback and insights but small enough to limit potential risks and impacts if any issues arise.

2. Implementing the Solution:

Next, apply the chosen solution to the selected sample or area. For instance, this could involve implementing a new process, using new technology, or introducing changes in a controlled environment.

3. Data Collection:

During the pilot test, gather relevant data and feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of the solution. For example, performance metrics, user feedback, observations, and any other relevant information.

4. Monitoring and Evaluation:

Continuously monitor the pilot implementation to identify any challenges or unexpected outcomes. Also, evaluate the results against predetermined success criteria and objectives.

5. Identifying Improvements:

Based on the data and feedback collected during the pilot test, identify areas that require improvement or optimization. In fact, these insights will help refine the solution before broader implementation.

6. Making Adjustments:

Use the feedback and evaluation results to make necessary adjustments to the solution or implementation approach. Consequently, this iterative process helps ensure that the final solution is well-tailored to address the identified issues effectively.

7. Documenting Lessons Learned:

Document the findings and lessons learned during the pilot test. More importantly, this documentation will be valuable in guiding the full-scale implementation and in addressing potential challenges.

8. Full-Scale Implementation:

Once the pilot test is successful and any necessary improvements are made, proceed with the full-scale implementation of the solution across the entire organization or system.

In summary, pilot testing allows organizations to minimize risks and costs associated with large-scale implementation by validating the solution in a controlled and smaller setting. In addition, it provides valuable insights into the solution’s feasibility, impact, and potential issues, enabling a more effective and efficient implementation process.


The Improve Phase in the Six Sigma methodology involves generating solutions and evaluating them to address identified problems and improve processes. By utilizing various tools and techniques such as brainstorming, affinity diagrams, cause and effect analysis, the Pugh Matrix, and pilot testing, teams can systematically generate ideas, analyze their viability, and select the most suitable solutions. These techniques facilitate a collaborative and structured approach, leading to successful improvements and achieving desired outcomes in organizations across various industries.

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